Drone Rules

FPV, Drone or Multirotor or Fixed Wing aircraft come in all shapes and sizes, below are the legal requirements you need to be aware off.

MULTIROTOR MODEL AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH CAMERAS LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDANCE 

The sport of model flying has undergone some significant changes over the last few years, many of them technology based. Developments in areas such as batteries, motors and control systems have made types of aircraft that were previously only within the remit of the experienced and resourceful home builder, a practical “off the shelf” proposition. The BMFA regularly receives queries from enthusiastic potential aviators particularly, with regard to aerial photography and the use of multirotors as a tool for this purpose.This document aims to answer some of the questions that we are asked on a regular basis by novice pilots and also by modellers who have flown more traditional types of model aircraft, and are branching out into multirotor aircraft and aerial imaging for the first time, (the majority of this guidance also applies to any type of model aircraft used to carry a camera). Camera carrying aircraft come in all shapes and sizes, from the micro quadcopters with tiny built in cameras, to the larger multirotors capable of supporting a considerable payload and imaging capability, many newcomers to this aspect of model flying will purchase the readily available medium sized quadcopters capable of lifting popular “action” cameras. The important point before flying your camera equipped multirotor, is to be clear on the legal restrictions and conditions placed on this type of activity. 

THE LEGAL POSITION The operation of multirotors for sport and recreational purposes is covered by the same legal considerations as other model aircraft; the law makes no specific distinction on types of aircraft other than weight limits. The overriding consideration is compliance with the relevant articles of the Civil Aviation, Air Navigation Order; the primary “endangering” provisions are addressed by Articles 138 and 137 which are reproduced below:
 Article 138;
“A person must not recklessly or negligently cause or permit an aircraft to endanger any person or property”   

Article137;
‘A person must not recklessly or negligently act in a manner likely to endanger an aircraft, or any person in an aircraft’   

THESE APPLY TO ALL MODEL AIRCRAFT AT ALL TIMES, WHATEVER THEIR WEIGHT OR SIZE. Article 166 (set out below) covers the general principles that again apply to all model aircraft, however, only the provisions that specifically apply to the activity we are discussing here are included, the conditions applying to aircraft weighing in excess of 7kg have been removed as in multirotor terms, these are fairly specialized pieces of equipment more usually employed in aerial work. 

Article 166, (Small Unmanned Aircraft)
(2) The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft may only fly the aircraft if reasonably satisfied that the flight can safely be made.
(3) The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft must maintain direct, unaided visual contact with the aircraft sufficient to monitor its flight path in relation to other aircraft, persons, vehicles, vessels and structures for the purpose of avoiding collisions.
 (5) The person in charge of a small unmanned aircraft must not fly the aircraft for the purposes of aerial work except in accordance with a permission granted by the CAA.
Perhaps the most relevant provisions in terms of photography/filming with model aircraft as a sport and recreational activity are covered within Article 167 below, which sets out the basic conditions of operation as well as specifying exact distances.
Article 167, (Small unmanned surveillance aircraft)
(1) The person in charge of a small unmanned surveillance aircraft must not fly the aircraft in any of the circumstances described in paragraph (2) except in accordance with a permission issued by the CAA.
(2) The circumstances referred to in paragraph (1) are:-
(a) over or within 150 metres of any congested area;
(b) over or within 150 metres of an organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons;
(c) within 50 metres of any vessel, vehicle or structure which is not under the control of the person in charge of the aircraft; or
(d) subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), within 50 metres of any person.
(3) Subject to paragraph (4), during take-off or landing, a small unmanned surveillance aircraft must not be flown within 30 metres of any person.
(4) Paragraphs (2) (d) and (3) do not apply to the person in charge of the small unmanned surveillance aircraft or a person under the control of the person in charge of the aircraft.
(5) In this article ‘a small unmanned surveillance aircraft’ means a small unmanned aircraft which is equipped to undertake any form of surveillance or data acquisition.
The BMFA Members Handbook also contains the following notes which help to clarify the conditions outlined within Article 167.
BMFA Notes.
They are only concerned with models equipped with cameras, video equipment etc. that have the potential to be used for surveillance purposes, either visual or electronic.  It should also be noted that the above legislation (articles 166 and 167) does NOT prohibit you from flying a camera or video equipped model for recreational purposes. The person in charge of the model must retain direct visual contact with the model (Article 166) and there are some restrictions as to where you can fly (Article 167). Probably the most important of these restrictions are the limits of not flying within 50 metres of any person or 30 metres from any person during take off and landing and these are exactly the same as for any model over 7 kg.   

THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION
As ever a little common sense goes a long way towards interpreting and complying with the relevant legal requirements.
The primary aim of the various Air Navigation Order provisions is to prevent members of the public being endangered and full size aviation being endangered, to a lesser degree these provisions also help to limit the potential for causing nuisance and for invading privacy.
In terms of filming or image capturing this limits how close we can get to people and structures that are nothing to do with us (i.e. not under the control of the pilot), however the positive aspect is that the wording of 167(c) permits closer operations where it is with the consent and knowledge of all parties involved (notwithstanding the primary endangering considerations of course). 

AERIAL WORK OR SPORT AND RECREATION?
Another primary consideration is the purpose of the flight, the flying of a model aircraft with a camera on board is recognised as a sport and recreational activity by the CAA and therefore covered under the terms of the insurance provided as part of the BMFA membership package (provided that the activity is legal in respect of the Air Navigation Order).
However, where a flight is made for payment or the purpose is in any way commercial i.e. not as a sport and recreational activity, then it becomes classed as aerial work by the CAA and requires an exemption to the Air Navigation Order to be issued in order to take place lawfully.
Details of aerial work and exemption application information can be obtained through the CAA website www.caa.co.uk 
It should be borne in mind that “aerial work” is an entirely separate activity to  model flying, and as such it must be insured under the terms of an appropriate commercial policy, the standard policy provided to BMFA members does not provide cover for aerial photography on a commercial basis. 

FLYING LOCATIONS
We receive regular queries regarding appropriate flying locations for multirotor aircraft.
Whilst the overall considerations are the same as for any other model aircraft, there is no doubt that multirotors open up new areas for flying due to their ability to operate in relatively small spaces, this does however mean that careful consideration is required before flying in order to remain lawful.
If intending to fly on private land then the permission of the landowner should be sought, if flying on public land such as a park or open access site then you must ensure that there are no bylaws in place specifically prohibiting or restricting model flying.
The other main consideration is the overall suitability of the location for the activity, and that all flying can take place in compliance with the primary “endangering” provisions of the ANO (Articles 137 and 138) and also in accordance with the distances set out in Article 167 above. 

IN SUMMARY
·         Be familiar with the legal requirements relating to your chosen activity.
·         Do not endanger person or property.
·         Ensure that the proposed flying location is appropriate and safe.
·         Maintain line of site for the purposes of control at all times (see CAA Exemption for specific details of FPV flight permissions).
·         Charging for flights renders the activity Aerial Work.
·         Do not constitute a nuisance.
·         Do not invade privacy.
·         Ensure that appropriate liability insurance cover is in place to protect you in the event of an incident leading to a claim against you.